How Does A Laser Welding Machine Work?

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Laser welding has been in use up to 30 years, even though the method is not been commonly used until now. Laser welding is having great importance presently as a result of improvements in the production processes such as 3D printing of metallic objects.

The laser welding machine is a machine that is used to produce a laser (monochromatic beam of light) for welding metals. A laser welding machine exerts heat at particular points during the welding and joining processes.

You can join two components together using this machine. Both sides of the abutting material will be melted which in turn coalesce and form the joint.

How does a laser welding machine work?

Welding by laser welding machine is very simple:

  • Hold two separate accurately cut sheets firmly together.
  •  The laser welding machine will melt the edges of the sheet metal by releasing a certain amount of heat unto them.
  •  The melt flows into each other - and the joint is complete.
  • In thin materials, laser welding machine can be used at high welding velocities in meters per minute due to the concentrated heat source.
  • Whereas, it can generate slim and deep welds in thicker materials with square edges.

Laser welding machine works in two basic modes: keyhole welding and heat conduction welding.

Two basic working modes of laser welding machine

You can carry out laser welding in two ways:

Thermal (Heat) Conduction Welding

In this type of welding, the material is heated above the thawing point of the metal. However, not to an extent that it evaporates.

You can use this procedure for welds that do not require high weld strength. Laser welding machine conduction mode produces round, smooth bead that may not require additional grinding or finishing.

Conduction mode uses a low-power laser that ranges from 500 watts. And they are used to produce corner welds on the surfaces of electronics packages.

laser welding machine

Keyhole Welding

In this procedure, the metal is heated to the extent that its contact surface evaporates and penetrates deep into the metal. The laser welding machine keyhole mode is amazing for its deep and strong penetration of structural welds.

This type of welding requires high-powered lasers with a power output of above 105W/mm2. It is used for applications like turbine blades, valves going into space, tank bearings, etc.

Materials that can be welded by laser welding machine and their thawing points.

Some of the materials that you can weld with a laser welding machine are listed below with their thawing points:

Copper: Starting from 1085 degrees Celsius

Aluminum: 600 degrees Celsius

Plastics: From 150 to 350 degrees Celsius

Glass: It ranges from 600 to 800 degrees Celsius

Steel: 1400 degrees Celsius

Where is Laser Welding Used?

Laser welding is rapidly being used in various industries. Some of the common areas where laser welding is used are:

  • Constructing tools
  • Steel building
  • Shipbuilding
  • Automotive industry

In conclusion, a Laser welding machine is an equipment used for joining metals by laser. It works on two basic modes which are the heat conduction mode and keyhole mode.

Laser welding machine can be used in different industries including the automobile industry as it has a tool-free operation style.

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